restricted access The European Union and Democratization in Turkey: The Role of the Elites

Although Turkey’s recent democratization efforts triggered by the accession process to the EU have been considerable, implementation remains a serious problem. As in similar cases, experience has shown that in externally induced democratization processes, the role of internal agents of democratization—through elite socialization—determines the level of implementation. Within this context, the roles played by Turkey’s business, army, judiciary, and state bureaucracy are explored.