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BOOK REVIEWS 195 Does error invariably result from conscious volition? And Bausola tries to show contrary to Croce% view that there are instances of error which do not involve conscious volition, but that Croce% denial of such instances follows necessarily from his improper definition of knowledge. This volume then concludes with a critical discussion of topics in Croce's theory of history, such as the nature of historical truth, the relation between history and poetry, and the view that every history is autobiography. Although the themes examined in Etica e Poli~ica are, specifically speaking, diverse from those discussed in Filosofia e Storia, they generally complement the latter. Thus, for example, Bausola writes that in Etica e Politica, the examination of Crocean criticism of historiography complements the treatment of historical knowledge in the earlier volume. Moreover, the topic of historical judgment discussed in Filosofia e Storia is examined at greater length in the treatments of the theory of liberty and of evil, conducted in Etica e Politica. Chapter * of ELiza e Politlca begins with a critical discussion of the universal form of practical activity, which is ethical will and concludes with treating of the generic relations between thought and action or the theoretic and the practical forms of activity. Chapter n generally treats of the nature of and rehttions between the two forms of practical spirit (economic and ethical will), and Chapter m treats of Croce's view of this topic as developed specifically from 1900-1920. (Croce's political activities axe referred to here briefly and only insofar as they help to explicate his philosophic position.) The next two chapters discuss respectively the relations between liberty and the problem of evil and the so-called religion of liberty; and Croce's philosophy of law and his political doctrine are subsequently treated along with his view of the nature of the individual and his relation to spirit (/o sp/r/to). This volume then concludes with a discussion of Croce's description of economic activity as vital force (vitali~). MvaA M. Mtt~ San Jose State College The Orir o] Philosophy. By Jos6 y Gasset. Translated by Toby Talbot. (N. Y.: W. W. Norton, 1967.Pp. 125.$4.00.) This fascinating book reminds one that it is easy for philosophers to be lost from view, no matter how littlethey deserve it. Two reasons for the neglect of Ortega are the great popularity of The Revolt o] the Masses when it firstappeared--good as it was, very good, it was too much an updated Tocqueville with more words than Tocqueville would use--and the literary and even journalistic qualities of many of his writings. Ortega knew that the grace and polish of his prose worked to the disadvantage of the reputation he wanted. In a footnote here he vents his anger and bitterness: "...there has never been a genus dicendi truly adequate as a vehicle for philosophizing. Aristotle was unable to resolve this problem that fools ignore. His work has been preserved because he held on to his own lesson notes. I personally have had to contain myself for thirty years while fools accuse me of producing only literature,and the worst part is that even my own students find it necessary to pose the question of whether I have been writing literature or philosophy, along with other ridiculousprovincial notions of thisorder I" (p. 86, n.). A feeling of unwarranted neglect, or at least neglect of the originality and systematic nature of his philosophy--for he was a widely admired writer--may account for Ortega's stridency in this book, and his self-praise. His Nietzschean and aphoristic style indicate a belief that the mass mind has at last penetrated every crevice of the world of thought and surveys its darkness and enigma with fatuous optimism. The fragmentary and discontinuous character of the discourse, though, probably comes from writing sections of it at different times, beginning in his sixtieth year, and continuing past his seventieth. His idea, 196 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY in 1943, was to write an Epilogue to Julian Marias' History o] Philosophy. In early 1944, the Epilogue was conceived as a volume of 400 pages, and later of 700. In...


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