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198 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY World and the Individual, the idealistic theory of being is described as a "method" in terms of which we should estimate the facts of experience (II, 5). In the absence of such theory, the study of experience would entirely lack "metaphysical foundation" (I, 393). For Royce, experience must stand in relation to ideas; without thought, it is just an uninteUigible presence. Is it not more plausible, then, to view his later works a8 studies of experience in the light of idealism, rather than as marking an entirely new departure? Father Roth's desire to find a "Jamesian" Royce betrays him into serious misreadings of Royce's text. On p. 162, the author quotes a definition of loyalty from The Philosophy o] Loyalty. Because this is stated in terms of the "will to believe," Father Both, in effect, concludes that Royce abandons his attempt to demonstrate the existence of the "Eternal" in favor of a personal choice approach. This is simply not so. The quoted definition is introduced only for those who do not think that the existence of the eternal has been demonstrated. Royce himself still insists that his metaphysics is "logically inevitable" (p. 372). It is unlikely that anyone will ignore the religious side of Royce's thought. This is more apt to happen in the case of the other four. Father Roth's insistence that their thought has a religious aspect is, thus, worthwhile. I, for one, was surprised at how much religious thought there is in James when one looks for it. Yet, even the treatment of James leaves numerous doubts. On p. 47, Father Both maintains that throughout James' Pragmatist,n, it is "quite clear" that "pragmatism leads inevitably to belief in God as the only means of making the world rational." One wonders whether this is not too strong a claim. That for James, pragmatism could lead to theism is clear enough, but is this leading at all "inevitable"? In a similar way, is "The Will to Believe" only a defense of the right to adopt a religious attitude, or does it advocate theism? Father Roth is not explicit on this point, although he seems to favor the second alternative (p. 35). But for James, is the will to believe the will to accept theism, or simply to choose one side or the other when the evidence favors neither? The word "believe" is used either with emphasis on the commitment, or on the absence of sufficient evidence. More generally, the author does not distinguish between theism and moral idealism. One suspects, however, that for the time in question, this distinction is of great importance. Even in the case of Royce, whose later work is theistic, in his very early essays, it is hard to draw the line between a concern for the quality of human life and theism. The same seems to be true of the whole of James' work. An attempt to view James in terms of this distinction would, I think, help to decide whether James' thought is religious in a very broad sense, or involves a definite commitment to theism. IONAS K. SKR~JPSKELIS University o] ~gouth Carolina BooKs I~I~CErV~B Frankena, William K. S~e Beliefs about Justice. Lawrence: The Department of Philosophy of The University of Kansas, 1966.Pp. 20. = The Lindley Lecture, University of Kansas, March 2, 1966. Paper. Frege, Gottlob. The Basic Law8 of Arithmetic: Exposition of the System~ Edited, .trans. from the German, with an Introduction by Montgomery Fu=r. t.h. Berkeley: U~versity of Cal!fornia Press, 1967.Pp. lxiii W 143 [i]. (This is an unrevmededltlon of the work first published m 1964 by The Regents of the University of California.) Paper, $1.95. Gabon;y, Piaeide. Mati~re et Structure: R~flexions sur l'oeuvre d'art. Preface by Jacques Brault Bruges, Belgium: Descl4e de Brouwer, 1967. Pp. 184. -- Essais pour notre temps, 6. Paper. Gattullo, Mario. Categoria e Oggetto in Kant: La deduzione transeendentale nella prima edzz~one della Critica della regione pura. Firenze: La Nuova Italia Editrice, 1966, Pp. 125+i. = Publicazioni della Facoltk di Magistero dell'Universit~degli Studi di Bolo~a, It Paper...


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