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BOOK REVIEWS 419 It is perhaps necessary to warn against another possible misunderstanding. Indian Neologic can be formalized, but it is not formal logic in the sense that Indian logicians envisioned a "logic without existence" or without metaphysics. In spite of protestations of existentialists, one may symboloze existentialism in the way ethical doctrines are symbolized . But it cannot be implied that existentialism does not deal with existence. The very name of Gafge~a's work, TattvacintSmani ("Precious Stone of Metaphysical Categories") shows that Gaflgefia was thinking primarily of metaphysics. The word tattva means "thatness " or category of reality. What in the modem West is called logic is a part of metaphysics and is metaphysical for the Indian Neo-logicians. It is not easy to explain and comment on Neo-logic, not to speak of translating it. But Goekoop has done a very good lob within the limits imposed by the differences of language, conceptual formations, and the conventions of Western orientalist traditions in translation and explanation. This book can remove one notion in the minds of some Western philosophers , when they see the definitions of the major premise, which are about thirty in number, and the discussion of their merits and defects, viz., that Indian philosophers did not care to be exact and precise in the formulation of their concepts and theories. P. T. t~av The College of Wooster BOOK NOTES Two Treatises o] Government. By John Locke. Ed. Peter Laslett. (2nd ed.; Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1967.Pp. xvii + 525.$11.50) This new edition of this important text has few changes except for the updating of the footlists , appendices, bibliographies, etc., to include new work on Locke over the last seven years, and the index has been substantially enlarged. Laslett has added a new foreword (pp. xiv-xvii) in which he states that changes of his text have only been made where it has "been shown to be factually inaccurate." He has tried to take account of some of the points raised by reviewers of the first edition. The pagination has been kept the same except for the extended bibliography and index. It remains the best edition; it is of the greatest value to scholars. --R. H. POPKIN The Sage o] Salisbury: Thomas Chubb (1679-1747). By T. L. Bushell. (New York: Philosophical Library, 1967.Pp. vii + 159.$5.) During the early decades of the 18th century Thomas Chubb formulated the general doctrines of the kind of liberalism that dominated the Enlightenment. He relied largely on the Cambridge Platonists, on John Locke, and on Richard Hooker, extracting from them what served as a constructive, least-polemical, common denominator. This was the version of "common sense" and "age of reason" that Thomas Paine popularized in Europe and America. It was specifically the philosophy preached in Virginia by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It was Chubb that changed Locke's formula for natural rights from "life, liberty, and estate" to "life, liberty, and happiness." He rejected the mythical "state of nature" and "social contract' as portrayed by Locke, preferring the more common law doctrine of Richard Hooker. He defended the reasonableness of the Christian Religion (i.e., Unitarianism) as did Locke, and he championed a radical religious liberty. He believed in the natural law of Cicero and the Scholastics, but he formulated it more like Grotius. The chief sources are: A Collection o] Tracts on Various Subjects (1730); The Comparative Excellence and Obligation of Moral and Positive Duties Fully Stated and Considered (1730); A Discourse concerning Human Reason (1731); An Enquiry into the Ground and Foundation of Religion (1740); The Equity and Reasonableness o] the Divine Conduct (1737); The Ground and Foundation of Morality Considered (1745); Posthumous Works, 2 vols. (1748). These works were known and admired by, among many others, Samuel Clarke, Alexander Pope, Voltaire, Jonathan Edwards, Coleridge, and Lessing. Since the works are now not readily available, T. L. Bushell has made a useful contribution to our literature of the Enlightenment . --H. W. SCHN~ER 420 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY La Sillagistica di Aristotele. By Jan Lukasiewicz, and C. Negro. Portions trans. C. Negro. Intro. Czes~aw Lejewski. Archivum Philosophicum Aloisianum: a cura della facolta di filosofia dell' istituto...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1538-4586
Print ISSN
0022-5053
Pages
pp. 419-421
Launched on MUSE
2008-01-01
Open Access
No
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