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398 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY were evidently somewhat puzzling to James himself, but also by comparing James with Husserlian principles. On the other hand, James's perspective has its own integrity and clarity. It raises problems for Husserl and Wilshire which need to be solved before many men will believe that a phenomenological quest for necessity and certainty constitutes a program that can actually be fulfilled. JOHN K. Roan Claremont Men's College Physical Order and Moral Liberty: Previously Unpublished Essays. By George Santayana. Edited by John and Shirley Lachs. (Nashville, Tennesee: Vanderbilt University Press, 1969. Pp. xiv+322. $7.95) This volume should be precious to students of Santayana's art as well as of the development of his philosophy, for it takes the student into the philosophical artist's studio or workshop. It is impossible to date many of these essays, but on the whole they seem to be placed in an order from early to late. After two juvenile pieces, they are arranged under topics: "causation and flux," "fact and essence," "spirit and time," morals, society, free spirit. But the order of these topics is related roughly to the order of publication of some of his major works. Though Santayana sometimes noted: "for Realm of Matter" or "for Realm of Essence" or gave other indications of where an essay might fit into a publication, it does not follow that he wrote the essay with a publication in mind. And a few of his marginal comments, such as: "Much of this is good both in form and substance," indicate that he reread his earlier writings critically (and enjoyed them) even if they found no place in a publication. Santayana was devoted throughout his life to uniting "form" and "substance." His literary form or style developed from a period of studied rhetoric, through the Oxford period when he wrote consciously like a Victorian (he even commented that he hoped he would be recognized as an English man of letters, "the last of the Victorians") to his later, more distinctive, style of easy, fluent, poetic diction. This development is clearly illustrated here, if one contrasts his early argumentative and polemical analysis of causation (pp. 21-44) with his "Presuppositions" (pp. 229-241). His writing became less argumentative and more imaginative. His conception of mind as a union of sense and imagination was an insight into his own method of thinking and writing. As he grew older and isolated, and as his mind became his own realm of being, he relied increasingly on the fertility of his imagination and the spontaneity of his diction. It may be important for understanding these discards to relate them to his habit of working, which he summed up in his typical ironic phrase, "the idler and his works." He would begin a morning with an idea (which might have haunted him for a long time, or might have impressed him on the strolls of the preceding afternoon) and he would let this idea run away with his pen (as he expressed it) continuously and intensively all morning. By noon he would have a composition (with a minimum of scratchings). After lunch he would rest and then go for a leisurely walk (preferab/y in the Pincio Gardens) or he might let his friend C. A. Strong drive him along the Appian Way while Strong studied the Roman inscriptions on the tombstones. Then dinner. The evening was spent reading, either what he had just written or what some other person had written. This routine (he preferred to regard it as "material" rather than mechanical or habitual) usually left him with another idea on which he BOOK REVIEWS 399 could begin the next day's work. He believed that his "existence" created no problems --it was all automatic--and that all genuine problems are of, as well as for, the mind. Accordingly, he did not allow the tasks of publication to be genuine "work" or primary substance for a morning's composition. However, the compositions gradually became chapters, and being faced with a chapter, he was often forced to rewrite a composition that had been based on an independent idea. Of course, whim he was preoccupied with his...


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