A History of Greek Philosophy, Volume III: The Fifth-Century Enlightenment (review)
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376 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY seen as expressions--doubtless on a highly conceptualized level--of the same currents of thought and feeling that were moving the poets and the statesmen, the theologians and the playwrights, and the ordinary men of the age.... The cultural milieu in which a given philosophy emerges can be ignored only at the risk of making the philosophy seem a detached (and so meaningless and inconsequential) affair. (Preface) Occasionally Professor Jones is willing to violate his "determination" by merely mentioning a philosopher. For instance, in connection with a discussion of Bain's psychology , F. H. Bradley is mentioned in a footnote, which quotes his comment: "Mr. Bain collects that the mind is a collection. Has he ever thought who collects Mr. Bain?" (IV:41n). But this pithy remark, I suppose, throws enough light on Mr. Bradley as well as on Mr. Bain to permit Mr. Jones to refrain from further attempts to understand Mr. Bradley. The following historical philosophers have been elected by Jones, and the election reflects the author's own preferences as well as his experience as a teacher of college students with their interests, needs, and standard examinations. Volume l: Plato, Aristotle, Democritus, The Epicureans, The Pythagoreans, a few Stoics, Sextus Empiricus; Volume II: Paul, John, Augustine, Erigena, Abelard, Thomas, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, the Averroists; Volume III: Machiavelli, Luther, Francis Bacon, Galileo, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume; The Utilitarians, Comte, Marx, Darwin, Kierkegaard; Volume IV: Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Bergson, Dewey, Whitehead, Russell, Wittgenstein, Husserl, Sartre. In the appropriate places there are several chapters devoted to orientation and context, such as: Pre-Socratics, Greek Education through Greek Violence, The Late Classical Period, The New Religious Orientation, Renaissance, Reformation, the Enlightenment, Science, Scientism, and Social Philosophy. But there is no attempt to write histories of movements; the aim is merely general characterization. Such chapters are sketches or interludes for the more detailed, critical examination of the individual philosophers. They make it quite clear that they are subordinate to the main interest and achievement of the volumes. The "Suggestions for Further Reading" and the Glossary at the end of each volume are also limited to the most essential aids for students and have a very practical aim. What is generally striking and impressive about these volumes as a history is the quality of philosophic discussion that dominates them. Philosophers are presented as raising more problems than they can solve, and the problems are discussed as still serious issues. Theories are described less as answers to problems, more as general ideas, generated by the problems of particular individuals in particular circumstances, but still worth critical discussion not only in terms of their origins but of their intrinsic interest for any reflective mind. H. W. SCHNEIDER Claremont Graduate School, A History of Greek Philosophy, Volume I11: The Fi#h-Century Enlightenment. By W. K. C. Guthrie. (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1969. Pp. xvi+544. $16.50) It is already apparent that Professor Guthrie's comprehensive History of Greek Philosophy will become the standard work in its field. As Russell depended on Burnet for his knowledge of Greek philosophy, so future compilers of popular histories of BOOK REVIEWS 377 philosophy will depend on Guthrie. Nor is it likely that even specialists in the field will neglect to consult a work so solidly based on the results of the best and latest scholarship, and so free of the special pleading that so often disfigures such scholarship. It is a work which will cast a long shadow, and for this reason deserves a scrutiny commensurate with its importance. This, the third volume in the series, is in two parts of roughly equal length, the first dealing with "The World of the Sophists," the second with Socrates. I will discuss each in turn. Who were the sophists? In the strict sense they were professional educators--men like Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus and Hippias, who gave instruction for money. What they taught in common was rhetoric, the art of persuasion. Yet it was their contributions to the larger intellectual life of the day which make them important to us and justify the space given by Guthrie to...