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476 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 22:4 OCT I984 lace argues that it was his adherence to the Aristotelian method of scientific, necessary demonstration which encouraged Galileo to adopt a method of reasoning which, while expressed in hypothetical language, nevertheless satisfied the requirements of demonstration. Galileo took this method from Aquinas and Buridan as seen through his Jesuit sources, and Wallace presents several instances of its application in both Galileo's early works and the more mature works of his middle and late periods. Wallace's position on Galileo's use of ex suppositione reasoning has caused much debate in the past (and in response Wallace has appended a clarification to his original essay), and Prelude taken as a whole will certainly elicit additional controversy . The precise results of that debate are still uncertain, but it is clear that when the dust settles we will know far more about Galileo's early period and sources. For this we owe Father Wallace our sincere thanks. STEvEN J. LIvEsEY University of Oklahoma, Norman Jorge J. E. Gracia, translator. Suarez On Individuation. Metaphysical Disputation 5, Individual Unity and Its Principle. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1982. Pp. ix + 299. $2o.oo. Suarez on lndividuation is an important Latin book felicitously translated and properly annotated. The translated text, on a topic of contemporary controversy, is accompanied by an explanatory introduction, a glossary of the kind Alluntis and Wolter included in their translation of Duns Scotus's Quodlibetal Questions On The Power of God (Princeton 1975), and a Bibliography of "Recent Discussions on Suarez's Metaphysics ." I will say something about each element after a few general remarks. The translation is needed because of the timely subject and to increase the corpus of Suarez's Metaphysical Disputations available in English. Suarez is not only an ingenious philosopher, he is also a learned (if not always accurate) and dedicated summarizer of the positions and arguments he supports or rejects. He influences the history and also comments on it. This work presents theories in perspective, historically situated in ways that make them intelligible, tracing their influences to their sources and to later effects. Gracia, by his careful distinction among the various aspects of the questions about individuation and individuality and his awareness of the way such issues have been confused recently with notions of 'individual essence,' presents a text and introductory explanation that can make a positive advance in the sophistication of current discussions. For one thing Suarez's exposition of the differences among Scotus, Aquinas , and Ockham is lucid. The notes and glossary go a long way toward Gracia's objective "to facilitate understanding" (viii) with adept explanations, citations, references to places in the works Suarez is referring to and deft accounts of technical expressions, e.g., the "nature of individuality" (24, note l) and "designated matter" (for Aquinas) (25, note 8). The glossary, like the Scotus glossary mentioned above can be consulted for its application to other texts by the references given in it and its correlation to a selective index of Latin and English words. BOOK REVIEWS 477 The device of selecting a single English translation for principle uses of muhivocal Latin expressions and repeating the Latin original in brackets when the translation requires a variant in English is very helpful and ties in with the selective LatinEnglish index, keyed to the Glossary. Add to that a careful bibliography, an intelligent introduction, a sensitive translation (with sensible bracketed interpolations) and an effort to make the unwieldy academic Latin come out less soporifically in English than it might deserve. The job is done as it ought to be, both at the scholarly and the historical levels. It cannot be denied that Suarez is tortuous and prolix. Even in this good a translation, one might plod the jungle of opinions, objections and replies, and miss the whole point of Suarez's doctrine. Gracia explains it in about twenty-five pages of Introduction. The main idea is that Suarez distinguished the different loci demanding explanation: (1) the diversity and plurality among things and (2) the indivisibility of actual beings. Aquinas seems to have concentrated on explaining how individuals come to be "different according to number," and...


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