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474 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 22:4 OCT I984 simply incapable of understanding an Aristotelian analysis of substantial change without prime matter. For those who don't find actuality 'vacuous' (219), Williams's conclusions are not so inevitable. Williams makes one textual emendation (which is incorporated into the translation ) which must be rejected. At 315b14--15, the text reads (in transliteration) ek t6n aut6n gar trag6idia kai k6m6idia ginetai grammat6n. The correct understanding of this pharase was offered by Joachim'----out of the same letters one can compose a tragedy or a comedy. Williams adopts part of a suggestion of M. L. WesO that k6m6idia, which is in all MSS., be replaced by trug6idia. West's arguments strike me as extremely weak, but at least he realized that such an emendation required at least one more, and he recommended adding (plan henos) after ginetai grammat6n. Without this, we would have Aristotle saying that the words trag6idia and trug6idia are composed of the same letters! Williams, by adopting the first emendation without the second, has him saying just that. As is usual in this series, this volume is attractively and carefully produced--I found a few insignificant typographical errors, and the bibliography, glossary, and index are complete, and designed for ease of use. I did find the use of 'Polish' notation in the notes irritating, but it plays a significant role in only three instances, and is usually, though not always, paraphrased. It would have been most useful to have an English commentary on GC by a scholar not committed to the view that Aristotle's account of elemental change requires prime matter. Still, there is enough divergence of approach between Joachim and Williams to make this a worthwhile additional aid to understanding this difficult treatise. JAMES G. LENNOX University of Pittsburgh 2 H. H. Joachim, Aristotle on Coming-to-beand Passing-away (Oxford, 1922), 72. 3 M. L. West, "An Atomist Illustration in Aristotle" Philologus, 1!3 (1969): 15o--151. William A. Wallace. Prelude to Galileo: Essays on Medieval and Sixteenth-Century Sources of Galileo's Thought. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 62. Dordrecht , Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 198t. Pp. xvi + 369 . Dfl 95.oo, $49.95 (cloth); Dfl 45.oo, $23.5 ~ (Paper). This volume, containing partially-edited reprints of 15 articles and one previously unpublished essay, represents the fruit of some fifteen years of research on Galileo undertaken by Father Wallace. His goal in this work, as in his Galileo's Early Notebooks' and his forthcoming Galileo and His Sources, is to unlock the intellectual background upon which Galileo drew in the 158os and 159os. In the process, he steers a sharp course between the Scylla of treating Galileo merely with the hindsight of a twentieth- ' Galileo'sEarly Notebooks: The Physical Questions, A Translation from the Latin, with Historical and Paleographical Commentary. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977. BOOK REVIEWS 475 century perspective and the Charybdis of making Galileo a medieval scholastic; rather, as he says in his preface, his purpose is "to flesh out the heritage.., that he [Galileo] shared with few other professors at Italian universities in the Renaissance" (x). The first two articles of the volume provide a good introduction to medieval natural philosophy in general and theories of motion in particular. In part ~, Wallace examines aspects of the sixteenth-century fate of medieval theories of motion, first in the hands of Domingo de Soto and his colleagues at Paris and in Spain, and then in the works of several professors at the Collegio Romano in the second half of the century. It is this treatment of the Collegio Romano which leads Wallace to the third and central part of his book. In this third section, Wallace argues that fourteenth-century nominalism was not the overriding influence on Galileo's natural philosophy and scientific methodology that Pierre Duhem had thought. Instead, while Wallace acknowledges the influence of nominalist calculatory techniques to which Galileo was exposed, he suggests that these techniques were integrated into a more conservative Aristotelian tradition represented in the works of moderate realists teaching at the Collegio Romano in the second half of the sixteenth...


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