Genotype Frequencies of Polymorphic GSTM1, GSTT1, and Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 in Mexicans

The genotype frequencies of three metabolic polymorphisms were determined in a sample of a typical community in central Mexico. CYP1A1*3, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms were studied in 150 donors born in Mexico and with Mexican ascendants; with respect to ethnicity the subjects can be considered Mestizos. PCR reactions were used to amplify specific fragments of the selected genes from genomic DNA. An unexpected 56.7% frequency of the CYP1A1*3 allele (which depends on the presence of a Val residue in the 462 position of the enzyme, instead of Ile) was found, the highest described for open populations of different ethnic origins (i.e., Caucasian, Asian, African, or African American). The GSTM1 null genotype was found with a frequency of 42.6%, which is not different from other ethnicities, whereas the GSTT1 null genotype had a frequency of 9.3%, one of the lowest described for any ethnic group but comparable to the frequency found in India (9.7%). The frequency of the combined genotype CYP1A1*3/*3 and the GSTM1 null allele is one of the highest observed to date (or perhaps the highest): 13.7% among all the ethnicities studied, including Caucasians and Asians, whereas the combination of CYP1A1*3/*3 with the GSTT1 null allele reached only 2.8%. The GSTM1 null allele combined with the GSTT1 null allele, on the other hand, has one of the lowest frequencies described, 4.24%, comparable to the frequencies found in African Americans and Indians. Finally, the combined CYP1A1*3/*3, GSTM1 null allele, and GSTT1 null allele genotype could not be found in the sample studied; it is assumed that the frequency of carriers of these combined genotypes is less than 1%. CYP1A1*3 and CYP1A1*2 polymorphisms were also evaluated in 50 residents in a community of northern Mexico; the CYP1A1*3 frequency was 54%, similar to that found in the other community studied, and the CYP1A1*2 frequency was 40%, which is high compared to Caucasians and Asians but comparable to the frequency found in Japanese and lower than the frequency found in Mapuche Indians. Haplotype frequencies for these CYP1A1 polymorphisms were estimated, and a linkage disequilibrium value (D) of 0.137 was calculated.