One of the most difficult problems Israel has faced has been securing sources of energy. That existential reality explains the secrecy that Israel has kept relative to the various means it has employed to overcome these difficulties. However, recent declassification of Israeli documents facilitated the publication of several academic works which emphasized and explained the major solution of the state's oil problem during 1957–77—the evolving relations with Iran. Still, the climax of these economic relations, in the joint venture of the Eilat-Ashkelon oil pipeline during the late 1960s and early 1970s, has not yet been analyzed using the new government records. The article illustrates that Israel had been preoccupied with plans for the project long before 1967. It also provides an analysis of the intricacies of the Israeli-Iranian dialogue on the subject, and uncovers some unknown elements of Tehran's and Jerusalem's complementary and conflicting perspectives.

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