This paper provides new information on the effects of deregulation and consolidation in financial services markets by analyzing the Spanish insurance industry. The sample period 1989-98 spans the introduction of the European Union's (EU) Third Generation Insurance Directives, which deregulated the EU insurance market. Deregulation has led to dramatic changes in the Spanish insurance market; the number of firms declined by 35%, average firm size increased by 275%, and unit prices declined significantly in both life and non-life insurance. We analyze the causes and effects of consolidation using modern frontier efficiency analysis to estimate cost, technical, and allocative efficiency, as well as using Malmquist analysis to measure total factor productivity (TFP) change. The results show that many small, inefficient, and financially underperforming firms were eliminated from the market due to insolvency or liquidation. As a result, the market experienced significant growth in TFP over the sample period. Consolidation not only reduced the number of firms operating with increasing returns to scale but also increased the number operating with decreasing returns to scale. Hence, many large firms should focus on improving efficiency by adopting best practices rather than on further growth.