The Ubiquitous User: A Reexamination of Carlson's Deserted Library

An examination of traditional output measures—circulation, reserve, in-house use, and reference transactions—from the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), California State University, State University of New York, University of Maryland, and other libraries reveals declines that may be deeper and more widespread than previously reported. This trend is evident against a background that includes (1) continuing increases in the cost of periodicals, (2) searching for a new paradigm, and (3) the emerging virtual library.