This article considers the human rights situation of religious minorities living in the Muslim Middle East. It notes the common thread of human rights abuses that they face, and analyzes this in the light of Muslim legal concepts and standards. The article then explores whether or not the improvement of the human rights situation of religious minorities in the Middle East could be attempted from within a Muslim religious framework. Can the emancipatory interpretation of Islamic traditions and laws be used to eliminate the obstacles to the realization of their rights? This examination is carried out in the light of the literature and activism on the promotion of the rights of women under Muslim and Middle Eastern rule.