Genetic Structure of Mongolic-Speaking Kalmyks

Genetic polymorphisms of blood groups ABO and RH D, serum proteins HP, TF, and GC, and red cell enzymes ACP1, PGM1, ESD, GLO1, and SOD-A have been reported for three tribes (Torguts, Derbets, and Buzavs) of the Volga's Kalmyk-Oyrats. The Kalmyks exhibit genetic markers that are characteristic of Central Asian populations, namely, high allelic frequencies for ABO*B, TF*C2, GC*1F, ESD*2, and GLO1*2, and the rare incidence of individuals with the RH-negative phenotype. Genetic distance measures reveal that close genetic affinities exist between the Derbets and Buzavs, but both populations differ significantly from the Torguts. Collectively as an ethnic group, the Kalmyks genetically resemble the contemporary Buryats of the Baikal region of southeastern Siberia and the Mongols of Mongolia. The transplantation of the Kalmyk-Oyrats from their homeland near Lake Baikal to their current residence (4500 km) near the Caspian Sea and their subsequent isolation for more than 300 years have not appreciably altered the gene frequencies from the parental populations for frequencies of standard genetic markers.