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UPCC Bookmarking FAQ

General

Covers

Placing Bookmarks

Labeling Bookmarks

Image Sections

General

Q. What is the purpose of putting in bookmarks?

The bookmarks that you place in the PDF tell our automated “splitter” how to divide the complete PDF into small pieces that can then be downloaded by the end user. The labels that you attach to these bookmarks create the book’s online table of contents.

Q. Why doesn’t MUSE just put the whole PDF up and let the user download it at
once?

According to the terms of our contracts with our publishers, MUSE cannot allow users to download entire books. We hope that limiting downloads to relatively small portions of the book at a time will discourage fraud and abuse.

Q. Why has my book been returned to me?

Books are most often returned to the publishers for one of four reasons: 1) bookmarks have been placed incorrectly; 2) the PDF has not been formatted according to our specifications; 3) pages are missing, illegible, blurry, or out of order; and 4) the PDF has become corrupted and cannot be processed.

If your PDF is returned to you, there will be a note attached explaining what needs to be fixed. If you are still unsure of what corrections we need, please contact the person who asked you to resubmit your files.

Covers

Q. Why is my book’s cover not visible?

If your book’s cover is not visible, we did not receive a usable, separate file for the cover. This could happen for a number of reasons. For example, if the cover image file was mistakenly uploaded as a PDF, it could have been overwritten by the book PDF.

If you would like a cover to be added to your book, please upload a new file containing a full-size image of the cover (jpg, gif, png, no pdfs; 300 dpi; RGB.)

Q. Why is my book’s cover blurry?

If your book’s cover is blurry, the image file that we received for the cover did not meet the specs outlined in the original instructions that we sent to all of the publishers. In cases in which the cover is blurry, the file was generally much too small.

If you would like to have a better cover added to your book, please upload a new file containing a full-size image of the cover (jpg, gif, png, no pdfs; 300 dpi; RGB.)

Q. Do I have to submit the cover of the book?

If you want your cover to appear on the site, you must submit a separate image file. The file must contain a full-size image of the cover (jpg, gif, png, no pdfs; 300 dpi; RGB.)

If you do not submit a separate image file that meets these specifications, your cover will not be visible on the site even if it is included in the book PDF.

Q. Do I need to submit the back cover?

The back cover should be submitted as part of the book PDF and bookmarked accordingly. Do not submit it as a separate image file.

Q. Do I need to submit the spine?

No.

Placing Bookmarks

Q. How do I know where to place the bookmarks?

First, consider the content of the book. Skim the table of contents. Flip through the text. Once you know what items the book contains, use Step 2 of the attached chart to determine which items can be grouped together and which need to stand-alone.

When placing bookmarks, there are a few rules that always hold true:
1) the front cover and the table of contents MUST ALWAYS have their own bookmarks and can never be grouped with any other items;
2) subchapters MUST NEVER be bookmarked separately;
3) everything listed on the table of contents (except for subchapters) MUST ALWAYS have its own bookmark.

Q. What is the difference between a “section” of a book and a “part” of one?

Most of the time “section” and “part” are used interchangeably to designate portions of a book that are larger than a chapter but smaller than the full text. In these cases, the use of one term or the other is purely a stylistic choice made by the author and editor. Occasionally, a book contains both “sections” and “parts.” In these cases, a
“section” usually contains two or more “parts,” which in turn contain two or more chapters.

Q. How do I bookmark a book that is divided into sections/parts and chapters?

Bookmark each section/part and then bookmark each chapter within the section/part. (Make sure to bookmark the first chapter in the section.)

Q. How do I bookmark a book that is divided into sections and parts and chapters?

In this type of book, each section, part, and chapter MUST have its own properly labeled bookmark.

In order to make a long, complicated book PDF easier to work with, you may choose to nest the bookmarks within one another as long as follow one simple rule: DO NOT NEST BOOKMARKS MORE THAN ONE LAYER DEEP.

In other words, if a book contains sections, parts and chapters, you may nest the chapters inside of the parts or the parts inside of the sections. However, you may not nest the chapters inside of the parts and the parts inside of the sections. Doing so will cause the software that automatically divides the book PDF at the bookmarks to
ignore all of the bookmarks, leaving your book PDF as one large file that we cannot use. See What is the purpose of bookmarks and Why doesn't MUSE put the whole PDF up for more information.

Q. What do I do when the first chapter of a section (or part) starts on the same page
as the section heading?

Imagine a page that has “Part I: The Early Years” at the top, followed after a short gap by “Chapter 1: 1863 – 1874.” This page needs two bookmarks: one for the part and one for the chapter. However, each page can only have a single bookmark.

To solve this problem, you must duplicate the page that contains both the section heading and the beginning of the chapter and insert the duplicate page in front of the original page. You will now have two identical pages one after the other. Bookmark the first one and label it with the title of the section (or part.) Bookmark the second
one and label it with the title of the chapter. (The end user will not be aware that the same page appears twice.)

Q. What should I do when a chapter ends and the next chapter starts on the same
page?

We have a program that automatically divides the large book PDF that you send us into small, manageable PDFs that the end user can download. The bookmarks that you insert tell our program where to start each small PDF. This system works quite well on the majority of books, in which each chapter begins at the top of a new page.

However, a small number of books (especially books of poetry and songs) have “overlapping” chapters in which one chapter ends in the middle of a page and the next chapter starts immediately on the same page. Because of the way that our splitting program works, these types of books require special processing in order to appear correctly on our website.

To see the problem, consider a book in which Chapter 3 ends in the middle of a page and Chapter 4 begins on the same page. If you were to simply bookmark that page and label it Chapter 4, our program would not know to include that page in the PDF for Chapter 3. As a result, the PDF for Chapter 3 would be incomplete.

Fortunately, the solution to this problem is straight-forward: simply duplicate the page on which the two chapters overlap and insert the duplicate page in front of the original page. You will now have two identical pages, one after the other. (The end user will not be aware that the same page appears twice.) Bookmark the second one and label it with the title of the chapter that starts on that page. Our splitting program will now be able to create a complete PDF for each chapter.

Q. What do I do when the table of contents lists subchapters?

Bookmark each chapter. Ignore the subchapters. NEVER bookmark the subchapters, even if they are listed in the table of contents.

Q. How do I tell a chapter from a subchapter?

Chapters usually (but not always) start on a new page. They are often listed in bold in a book’s table of contents and are often even labeled “Chapter #” on the table of contents. On the other hand, subchapters often start in the middle of a page and are often not listed in a book’s table of contents. When they are listed in the table of contents, they are usually in a different font than the chapter titles.

Very occasionally, there is no clear distinction between a chapter and subchapter. In these cases, you should contact the production team at Project MUSE so that we can help you decide how to bookmark the PDF.

Q. How do I split a book of poems?

Books of poems are split just like any other book, with each poem being treated like a chapter. If necessary, follow the directions for dealing with “overlapping” chapters and “overlapping” chapters and sections given above (Questions 13 and 14.)

Q. How do I split a book of songs?

Books of songs are split just like any other book, with each song being treated like a chapter. If necessary, follow the directions for dealing with “overlapping” chapters and “overlapping” chapters and sections given above (Questions 13 and 14.)

Q. How do I split a reference book, such as a dictionary, encyclopedia, almanac,
etc.?

The organization of reference books varies depending on the type of book and the material that it discusses. As a result, the best way to split a reference book can vary considerably.

However, in general, reference books should be split in the same way as other books: into chapters (or whatever is analogous to chapters) with parts/sections (or whatever is analogous to parts/sections) bookmarked. Subchapters (or whatever is analogous to subchapters) should not be bookmarked.

For example, dictionaries are generally split so that every letter (the equivalent of a chapter) is bookmarked, but every entry (the equivalent of a subchapter) is not.

Q. How do I split a novel?

Novels should be split by chapters. If there are no clear divisions between chapters, the novel should be split into page ranges of 20 pages.

Q. How do I split a reprint of book when it includes introductory essays and
supplementary material?

The table of contents, forward, introduction, appendices, endnotes, and any other supplementary material designed to explain the reprinted text should be split as normal. (See the Question 9 for details.)

The reprinted text of the book being discussed should also be split as normal, with the cover, table of content, chapters, etc., each being bookmarked. DO NOT GROUP THE REPRINTED TEXT ALL TOGETHER WITH A SINGLE BOOKMARK.

Labeling Bookmarks

Q. How should I label the bookmarks?

The labels that you attach to the bookmarks will be used to create the online table of contents that end users will use to determine which chapters of the book to download. As a result, your primary goal is to create labels that clearly and thoroughly identify the contents of that portion of the PDF.

The general rule for labeling bookmarks in the body of the text is follow this pattern: [number of the chapter]. [title of the chapter]: [subtitle of the chapter]

See Step 3 of the attached spreadsheet for more detailed directions about specific types of items.

Q. What about when items are grouped together? How do I label those?

The labels that you attach to the bookmarks will be used to create the online table of contents. Therefore, it is important that these labels clearly identify each item grouped together in that portion of the PDF.

Labels for grouped items should follow this pattern: [item one], [item two], [item three] . For example, if a bookmarked portion of the book PDF contains the title page, copyright information, and acknowledgment, its bookmark label should read: Title Page, Copyright, Acknowledgment .

Image Sections

Q. What do I do when a book has images spread throughout the text? Do I need to
bookmark the images or mention them in the chapter’s bookmark label?

No - If the images are clearly part of a chapter with text flowing around them, ignore them.

Q. What do I do when a book has a several pages of images grouped together?

How images are handled depends on how they are (or are not) paginated in relation to the rest of the text.

If multiple pages of images are paginated consecutively with the rest of the text, these pages are simply treated as part of the chapter in which they fall. They do not receive a separate bookmark. Instead, the book mark for the chapter in which they fall should be labeled as usual with the phrase “including image plates” in parentheses after the
chapter title. For example: 4. Child’s Play in New York, 1900-1915 (including image plates) .

If multiple pages of images are not paginated consecutively with the rest of the text, they must be extracted from the book PDF and placed at the end of the body of the book with a bookmark labeled “Image Plates.” Bookmark the remainder of the PDF as usual. Because these unpaginated image inserts often fall in the middle of a chapter, it is critical to MAKE ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN THAT THE SECOND PART OF THE CHAPTER THAT THE IMAGES DIVIDED REMAINS IN ITS ORIGINAL PLACE AND IS INCLUDED IN THE SAME BOOKMARK AS THE FIRST HALF OF THE CHAPTER.

Q. What do I do if there is an image between every chapter?

Check the table of contents, the caption of the image, and the text of the two chapters to determine the chapter to which the image belongs. Make sure that the bookmarks for the two chapters are placed so that the image is grouped with the appropriate chapter.

Comments or Questions

Please contact Project MUSE Customer Support with any comments or questions concerning Project MUSE. We want to hear from you!